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dlaln2.f

      SUBROUTINE DLALN2( LTRANS, NA, NW, SMIN, CA, A, LDA, D1, D2, B,
     $                   LDB, WR, WI, X, LDX, SCALE, XNORM, INFO )
*
*  -- LAPACK auxiliary routine (version 2.0) --
*     Univ. of Tennessee, Univ. of California Berkeley, NAG Ltd.,
*     Courant Institute, Argonne National Lab, and Rice University
*     October 31, 1992
*
*     .. Scalar Arguments ..
      LOGICAL            LTRANS
      INTEGER            INFO, LDA, LDB, LDX, NA, NW
      DOUBLE PRECISION   CA, D1, D2, SCALE, SMIN, WI, WR, XNORM
*     ..
*     .. Array Arguments ..
      DOUBLE PRECISION   A( LDA, * ), B( LDB, * ), X( LDX, * )
*     ..
*
*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  DLALN2 solves a system of the form  (ca A - w D ) X = s B
*  or (ca A
' - w D) X = s B   with possible scaling ("s") and*  perturbation of A.  (A' means A-transpose.)
*
*  A is an NA x NA real matrix, ca is a real scalar, D is an NA x NA
*  real diagonal matrix, w is a real or complex value, and X and B are
*  NA x 1 matrices -- real if w is real, complex if w is complex.  NA
*  may be 1 or 2.
*
*  If w is complex, X and B are represented as NA x 2 matrices,
*  the first column of each being the real part and the second
*  being the imaginary part.
*
*  "s" is a scaling factor (.LE. 1), computed by DLALN2, which is
*  so chosen that X can be computed without overflow.  X is further
*  scaled if necessary to assure that norm(ca A - w D)*norm(X) is less
*  than overflow.
*
*  If both singular values of (ca A - w D) are less than SMIN,
*  SMIN*identity will be used instead of (ca A - w D).  If only one
*  singular value is less than SMIN, one element of (ca A - w D) will be
*  perturbed enough to make the smallest singular value roughly SMIN.
*  If both singular values are at least SMIN, (ca A - w D) will not be
*  perturbed.  In any case, the perturbation will be at most some small
*  multiple of max( SMIN, ulp*norm(ca A - w D) ).  The singular values
*  are computed by infinity-norm approximations, and thus will only be
*  correct to a factor of 2 or so.
*
*  Note: all input quantities are assumed to be smaller than overflow
*  by a reasonable factor.  (See BIGNUM.)
*
*  Arguments
*  ==========
*
*  LTRANS  (input) LOGICAL
*          =.TRUE.:  A-transpose will be used.
*          =.FALSE.: A will be used (not transposed.)
*
*  NA      (input) INTEGER
*          The size of the matrix A.  It may (only) be 1 or 2.
*
*  NW      (input) INTEGER
*          1 if "w" is real, 2 if "w" is complex.  It may only be 1
*          or 2.
*
*  SMIN    (input) DOUBLE PRECISION
*          The desired lower bound on the singular values of A.  This
*          should be a safe distance away from underflow or overflow,
*          say, between (underflow/machine precision) and  (machine
*          precision * overflow ).  (See BIGNUM and ULP.)
*
*  CA      (input) DOUBLE PRECISION
*          The coefficient c, which A is multiplied by.
*
*  A       (input) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDA,NA)
*          The NA x NA matrix A.
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of A.  It must be at least NA.
*
*  D1      (input) DOUBLE PRECISION
*          The 1,1 element in the diagonal matrix D.
*
*  D2      (input) DOUBLE PRECISION
*          The 2,2 element in the diagonal matrix D.  Not used if NW=1.
*
*  B       (input) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDB,NW)
*          The NA x NW matrix B (right-hand side).  If NW=2 ("w" is
*          complex), column 1 contains the real part of B and column 2
*          contains the imaginary part.
*
*  LDB     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of B.  It must be at least NA.
*
*  WR      (input) DOUBLE PRECISION
*          The real part of the scalar "w".
*
*  WI      (input) DOUBLE PRECISION
*          The imaginary part of the scalar "w".  Not used if NW=1.
*
*  X       (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDX,NW)
*          The NA x NW matrix X (unknowns), as computed by DLALN2.
*          If NW=2 ("w" is complex), on exit, column 1 will contain
*          the real part of X and column 2 will contain the imaginary
*          part.
*
*  LDX     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of X.  It must be at least NA.
*
*  SCALE   (output) DOUBLE PRECISION
*          The scale factor that B must be multiplied by to insure
*          that overflow does not occur when computing X.  Thus,
*          (ca A - w D) X  will be SCALE*B, not B (ignoring
*          perturbations of A.)  It will be at most 1.
*
*  XNORM   (output) DOUBLE PRECISION
*          The infinity-norm of X, when X is regarded as an NA x NW
*          real matrix.
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          An error flag.  It will be set to zero if no error occurs,
*          a negative number if an argument is in error, or a positive
*          number if  ca A - w D  had to be perturbed.
*          The possible values are:
*          = 0: No error occurred, and (ca A - w D) did not have to be
*                 perturbed.
*          = 1: (ca A - w D) had to be perturbed to make its smallest
*               (or only) singular value greater than SMIN.
*          NOTE: In the interests of speed, this routine does not
*                check the inputs for errors.
*
* =====================================================================
*
*     .. Parameters ..
      DOUBLE PRECISION   ZERO, ONE
      PARAMETER          ( ZERO = 0.0D0, ONE = 1.0D0 )
      DOUBLE PRECISION   TWO
      PARAMETER          ( TWO = 2.0D0 )
*     ..
*     .. Local Scalars ..
      INTEGER            ICMAX, J
      DOUBLE PRECISION   BBND, BI1, BI2, BIGNUM, BNORM, BR1, BR2, CI21,
     $                   CI22, CMAX, CNORM, CR21, CR22, CSI, CSR, LI21,
     $                   LR21, SMINI, SMLNUM, TEMP, U22ABS, UI11, UI11R,
     $                   UI12, UI12S, UI22, UR11, UR11R, UR12, UR12S,
     $                   UR22, XI1, XI2, XR1, XR2
*     ..
*     .. Local Arrays ..
      LOGICAL            RSWAP( 4 ), ZSWAP( 4 )
      INTEGER            IPIVOT( 4, 4 )
      DOUBLE PRECISION   CI( 2, 2 ), CIV( 4 ), CR( 2, 2 ), CRV( 4 )
*     ..
*     .. External Functions ..
      DOUBLE PRECISION   DLAMCH
      EXTERNAL           DLAMCH
*     ..
*     .. External Subroutines ..
      EXTERNAL           DLADIV
*     ..
*     .. Intrinsic Functions ..
      INTRINSIC          ABS, MAX
*     ..
*     .. Equivalences ..
      EQUIVALENCE        ( CI( 1, 1 ), CIV( 1 ) ),
     $                   ( CR( 1, 1 ), CRV( 1 ) )
*     ..
*     .. Data statements ..
      DATA               ZSWAP / .FALSE., .FALSE., .TRUE., .TRUE. /
      DATA               RSWAP / .FALSE., .TRUE., .FALSE., .TRUE. /
      DATA               IPIVOT / 1, 2, 3, 4, 2, 1, 4, 3, 3, 4, 1, 2, 4,
     $                   3, 2, 1 /
*     ..
*     .. Executable Statements ..
*
*     Compute BIGNUM
*
      SMLNUM = TWO*DLAMCH( 'Safe minimum' )
      BIGNUM = ONE / SMLNUM
      SMINI = MAX( SMIN, SMLNUM )
*
*     Don














































































't check for input errors*      INFO = 0**     Standard Initializations*      SCALE = ONE*      IF( NA.EQ.1 ) THEN**        1 x 1  (i.e., scalar) system   C X = B*         IF( NW.EQ.1 ) THEN**           Real 1x1 system.**           C = ca A - w D*            CSR = CA*A( 1, 1 ) - WR*D1            CNORM = ABS( CSR )**           If | C | < SMINI, use C = SMINI*            IF( CNORM.LT.SMINI ) THEN               CSR = SMINI               CNORM = SMINI               INFO = 1            END IF**           Check scaling for  X = B / C*            BNORM = ABS( B( 1, 1 ) )            IF( CNORM.LT.ONE .AND. BNORM.GT.ONE ) THEN               IF( BNORM.GT.BIGNUM*CNORM )     $            SCALE = ONE / BNORM            END IF**           Compute X*            X( 1, 1 ) = ( B( 1, 1 )*SCALE ) / CSR            XNORM = ABS( X( 1, 1 ) )         ELSE**           Complex 1x1 system (w is complex)**           C = ca A - w D*            CSR = CA*A( 1, 1 ) - WR*D1            CSI = -WI*D1            CNORM = ABS( CSR ) + ABS( CSI )**           If | C | < SMINI, use C = SMINI*            IF( CNORM.LT.SMINI ) THEN               CSR = SMINI               CSI = ZERO               CNORM = SMINI               INFO = 1            END IF**           Check scaling for  X = B / C*            BNORM = ABS( B( 1, 1 ) ) + ABS( B( 1, 2 ) )            IF( CNORM.LT.ONE .AND. BNORM.GT.ONE ) THEN               IF( BNORM.GT.BIGNUM*CNORM )     $            SCALE = ONE / BNORM            END IF**           Compute X*            CALL DLADIV( SCALE*B( 1, 1 ), SCALE*B( 1, 2 ), CSR, CSI,     $                   X( 1, 1 ), X( 1, 2 ) )            XNORM = ABS( X( 1, 1 ) ) + ABS( X( 1, 2 ) )         END IF*      ELSE**        2x2 System**        Compute the real part of  C = ca A - w D  (or  ca A' - w D )
*
         CR( 1, 1 ) = CA*A( 1, 1 ) - WR*D1
         CR( 2, 2 ) = CA*A( 2, 2 ) - WR*D2
         IF( LTRANS ) THEN
            CR( 1, 2 ) = CA*A( 2, 1 )
            CR( 2, 1 ) = CA*A( 1, 2 )
         ELSE
            CR( 2, 1 ) = CA*A( 2, 1 )
            CR( 1, 2 ) = CA*A( 1, 2 )
         END IF
*
         IF( NW.EQ.1 ) THEN
*
*           Real 2x2 system  (w is real)
*
*           Find the largest element in C
*
            CMAX = ZERO
            ICMAX = 0
*
            DO 10 J = 1, 4
               IF( ABS( CRV( J ) ).GT.CMAX ) THEN
                  CMAX = ABS( CRV( J ) )
                  ICMAX = J
               END IF
   10       CONTINUE
*
*           If norm(C) < SMINI, use SMINI*identity.
*
            IF( CMAX.LT.SMINI ) THEN
               BNORM = MAX( ABS( B( 1, 1 ) ), ABS( B( 2, 1 ) ) )
               IF( SMINI.LT.ONE .AND. BNORM.GT.ONE ) THEN
                  IF( BNORM.GT.BIGNUM*SMINI )
     $               SCALE = ONE / BNORM
               END IF
               TEMP = SCALE / SMINI
               X( 1, 1 ) = TEMP*B( 1, 1 )
               X( 2, 1 ) = TEMP*B( 2, 1 )
               XNORM = TEMP*BNORM
               INFO = 1
               RETURN
            END IF
*
*           Gaussian elimination with complete pivoting.
*
            UR11 = CRV( ICMAX )
            CR21 = CRV( IPIVOT( 2, ICMAX ) )
            UR12 = CRV( IPIVOT( 3, ICMAX ) )
            CR22 = CRV( IPIVOT( 4, ICMAX ) )
            UR11R = ONE / UR11
            LR21 = UR11R*CR21
            UR22 = CR22 - UR12*LR21
*
*           If smaller pivot < SMINI, use SMINI
*
            IF( ABS( UR22 ).LT.SMINI ) THEN
               UR22 = SMINI
               INFO = 1
            END IF
            IF( RSWAP( ICMAX ) ) THEN
               BR1 = B( 2, 1 )
               BR2 = B( 1, 1 )
            ELSE
               BR1 = B( 1, 1 )
               BR2 = B( 2, 1 )
            END IF
            BR2 = BR2 - LR21*BR1
            BBND = MAX( ABS( BR1*( UR22*UR11R ) ), ABS( BR2 ) )
            IF( BBND.GT.ONE .AND. ABS( UR22 ).LT.ONE ) THEN
               IF( BBND.GE.BIGNUM*ABS( UR22 ) )
     $            SCALE = ONE / BBND
            END IF
*
            XR2 = ( BR2*SCALE ) / UR22
            XR1 = ( SCALE*BR1 )*UR11R - XR2*( UR11R*UR12 )
            IF( ZSWAP( ICMAX ) ) THEN
               X( 1, 1 ) = XR2
               X( 2, 1 ) = XR1
            ELSE
               X( 1, 1 ) = XR1
               X( 2, 1 ) = XR2
            END IF
            XNORM = MAX( ABS( XR1 ), ABS( XR2 ) )
*
*           Further scaling if  norm(A) norm(X) > overflow
*
            IF( XNORM.GT.ONE .AND. CMAX.GT.ONE ) THEN
               IF( XNORM.GT.BIGNUM / CMAX ) THEN
                  TEMP = CMAX / BIGNUM
                  X( 1, 1 ) = TEMP*X( 1, 1 )
                  X( 2, 1 ) = TEMP*X( 2, 1 )
                  XNORM = TEMP*XNORM
                  SCALE = TEMP*SCALE
               END IF
            END IF
         ELSE
*
*           Complex 2x2 system  (w is complex)
*
*           Find the largest element in C
*
            CI( 1, 1 ) = -WI*D1
            CI( 2, 1 ) = ZERO
            CI( 1, 2 ) = ZERO
            CI( 2, 2 ) = -WI*D2
            CMAX = ZERO
            ICMAX = 0
*
            DO 20 J = 1, 4
               IF( ABS( CRV( J ) )+ABS( CIV( J ) ).GT.CMAX ) THEN
                  CMAX = ABS( CRV( J ) ) + ABS( CIV( J ) )
                  ICMAX = J
               END IF
   20       CONTINUE
*
*           If norm(C) < SMINI, use SMINI*identity.
*
            IF( CMAX.LT.SMINI ) THEN
               BNORM = MAX( ABS( B( 1, 1 ) )+ABS( B( 1, 2 ) ),
     $                 ABS( B( 2, 1 ) )+ABS( B( 2, 2 ) ) )
               IF( SMINI.LT.ONE .AND. BNORM.GT.ONE ) THEN
                  IF( BNORM.GT.BIGNUM*SMINI )
     $               SCALE = ONE / BNORM
               END IF
               TEMP = SCALE / SMINI
               X( 1, 1 ) = TEMP*B( 1, 1 )
               X( 2, 1 ) = TEMP*B( 2, 1 )
               X( 1, 2 ) = TEMP*B( 1, 2 )
               X( 2, 2 ) = TEMP*B( 2, 2 )
               XNORM = TEMP*BNORM
               INFO = 1
               RETURN
            END IF
*
*           Gaussian elimination with complete pivoting.
*
            UR11 = CRV( ICMAX )
            UI11 = CIV( ICMAX )
            CR21 = CRV( IPIVOT( 2, ICMAX ) )
            CI21 = CIV( IPIVOT( 2, ICMAX ) )
            UR12 = CRV( IPIVOT( 3, ICMAX ) )
            UI12 = CIV( IPIVOT( 3, ICMAX ) )
            CR22 = CRV( IPIVOT( 4, ICMAX ) )
            CI22 = CIV( IPIVOT( 4, ICMAX ) )
            IF( ICMAX.EQ.1 .OR. ICMAX.EQ.4 ) THEN
*
*              Code when off-diagonals of pivoted C are real
*
               IF( ABS( UR11 ).GT.ABS( UI11 ) ) THEN
                  TEMP = UI11 / UR11
                  UR11R = ONE / ( UR11*( ONE+TEMP**2 ) )
                  UI11R = -TEMP*UR11R
               ELSE
                  TEMP = UR11 / UI11
                  UI11R = -ONE / ( UI11*( ONE+TEMP**2 ) )
                  UR11R = -TEMP*UI11R
               END IF
               LR21 = CR21*UR11R
               LI21 = CR21*UI11R
               UR12S = UR12*UR11R
               UI12S = UR12*UI11R
               UR22 = CR22 - UR12*LR21
               UI22 = CI22 - UR12*LI21
            ELSE
*
*              Code when diagonals of pivoted C are real
*
               UR11R = ONE / UR11
               UI11R = ZERO
               LR21 = CR21*UR11R
               LI21 = CI21*UR11R
               UR12S = UR12*UR11R
               UI12S = UI12*UR11R
               UR22 = CR22 - UR12*LR21 + UI12*LI21
               UI22 = -UR12*LI21 - UI12*LR21
            END IF
            U22ABS = ABS( UR22 ) + ABS( UI22 )
*
*           If smaller pivot < SMINI, use SMINI
*
            IF( U22ABS.LT.SMINI ) THEN
               UR22 = SMINI
               UI22 = ZERO
               INFO = 1
            END IF
            IF( RSWAP( ICMAX ) ) THEN
               BR2 = B( 1, 1 )
               BR1 = B( 2, 1 )
               BI2 = B( 1, 2 )
               BI1 = B( 2, 2 )
            ELSE
               BR1 = B( 1, 1 )
               BR2 = B( 2, 1 )
               BI1 = B( 1, 2 )
               BI2 = B( 2, 2 )
            END IF
            BR2 = BR2 - LR21*BR1 + LI21*BI1
            BI2 = BI2 - LI21*BR1 - LR21*BI1
            BBND = MAX( ( ABS( BR1 )+ABS( BI1 ) )*
     $             ( U22ABS*( ABS( UR11R )+ABS( UI11R ) ) ),
     $             ABS( BR2 )+ABS( BI2 ) )
            IF( BBND.GT.ONE .AND. U22ABS.LT.ONE ) THEN
               IF( BBND.GE.BIGNUM*U22ABS ) THEN
                  SCALE = ONE / BBND
                  BR1 = SCALE*BR1
                  BI1 = SCALE*BI1
                  BR2 = SCALE*BR2
                  BI2 = SCALE*BI2
               END IF
            END IF
*
            CALL DLADIV( BR2, BI2, UR22, UI22, XR2, XI2 )
            XR1 = UR11R*BR1 - UI11R*BI1 - UR12S*XR2 + UI12S*XI2
            XI1 = UI11R*BR1 + UR11R*BI1 - UI12S*XR2 - UR12S*XI2
            IF( ZSWAP( ICMAX ) ) THEN
               X( 1, 1 ) = XR2
               X( 2, 1 ) = XR1
               X( 1, 2 ) = XI2
               X( 2, 2 ) = XI1
            ELSE
               X( 1, 1 ) = XR1
               X( 2, 1 ) = XR2
               X( 1, 2 ) = XI1
               X( 2, 2 ) = XI2
            END IF
            XNORM = MAX( ABS( XR1 )+ABS( XI1 ), ABS( XR2 )+ABS( XI2 ) )
*
*           Further scaling if  norm(A) norm(X) > overflow
*
            IF( XNORM.GT.ONE .AND. CMAX.GT.ONE ) THEN
               IF( XNORM.GT.BIGNUM / CMAX ) THEN
                  TEMP = CMAX / BIGNUM
                  X( 1, 1 ) = TEMP*X( 1, 1 )
                  X( 2, 1 ) = TEMP*X( 2, 1 )
                  X( 1, 2 ) = TEMP*X( 1, 2 )
                  X( 2, 2 ) = TEMP*X( 2, 2 )
                  XNORM = TEMP*XNORM
                  SCALE = TEMP*SCALE
               END IF
            END IF
         END IF
      END IF
*
      RETURN
*
*     End of DLALN2
*
      END

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